Heliocentrism

“You are insignificant!”
copernican-world-system-17th-century-science-source

According to the orthodox paradigm, Earth is a convex spheroid traveling in an elliptical orbit around our Sun along with the other orbiting planets of our solar system, the Sun being one of billions of stars moving through space at vast speeds, in an arm of a spiral galaxy known as the Milky Way, one of billions, perhaps trillions, of galaxies in the so-called “known universe.”

There is no center we could know of; everything is expanding from an alleged “Big Bang” some 13 Billion Earth-years ago.

This larger perspective has been developing as the dominant paradigm from the time of Nicolas Copernicus, usurping the ancient views of Earth as the center of creation, with the heavens cycling around, and replacing it with the concept of Earth rotating upon an axis while orbiting the Sun.

This heliocentric model explains the orbital periods, varying brightnesses and the retrograde motion of planets through simple geometry.

Copernicus was not the first to so claim.

Earth as sphere

earth-spinning-rotating-animation-55

The concept of Earth as a sphere requisite to the heliocentric model vastly predates the Copernican Revolution. The spherical Earth was mentioned historically in ancient Greek writings and showed its face in Persian, Arabic and Indian writings.

Pythagoras (6th Century B.C.) was the first Greek who called the Earth round; though Theophrastus attributes this to Parmenides, and Zeno to Hesiod.” ~ Laertius, (3rd Century AD).

Pythagoras was a heliocentrist, he studied with priests in Egypt, and then in Persia under the Magi, who possessed ancient high knowledge, as did the Egyptians.

Plato wrote that our Creator: “made the world in the form of a globe, round as from a lathe, having its extremes in every direction equidistant from the center, the most perfect and the most like itself of all figures.” “My conviction is that the Earth is a round body in the center of the heavens, and therefore has no need of air or of any similar force to be a support.”

aristotle

Aristotle taught that the Earth is a globe and noted such facts as the change in constellations seen at differing latitudes, and that the round shadow of Earth on the Moon during a lunar eclipse was the shadow of a sphere. Aristotle believed in a geocentric universe, as did Plato, in which the fixed, spherical Earth is at the center, surrounded by perfect concentric celestial spheres of planets and stars.

Heraclides (390-310 B.C.) proposed that the apparent daily motion of the stars was created by the rotation of the Earth on its axis once a day. This view contradicted the accepted Aristotelian model of the universe, which said that the earth was fixed and that the stars & planets in their respective spheres might also be fixed.

Aristarchus (of Samos c. 270 B.C.) has brought out a book consisting of certain hypotheses …. His hypotheses are that the fixed stars and the Sun remain unmoved, that the Earth revolves about the Sun on the circumference of a circle, the Sun lying in the middle of the orbit, and that the sphere of fixed stars, situated about the same center as the Sun, is so great that the circle in which he supposes the Earth to revolve bears such a proportion to the distance of the fixed stars as the center of the sphere bears to its surface.” ~ Archimedes

eratostenes
Eratosthenes

Eratosthenes (circa 205 B.C.), librarian at Alexandria, calculated the circumference of the Earth, as well as the tilt of the globe’s axis to its orbital plane. He measured the angle of the shadows of two vertical sticks at Syrene and Alexandria in Egypt, and from the angles, knowing the distance between the two cities, calculated the Earth’s circumference with a fair degree of accuracy.

Global Eratosthenes Project – where school children around the world reproduce Eratosthenes’ experiment. Results from the Andean countries in 2015:

“From Monday 15 to Wednesday, June 24, 2015, about 80 teachers from Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Peru & Venezuela, motivated by Eratosthenes, joined to work with their students to measure the size of the Earth.

“For the measurement of 21 June 2015, 1587 teachers with students registered … the Terrestrial Radius = 6363 +/‐ 126 km … the average accepted value is 6371 Km.

“We see that our result is only 8 km below the accepted value which pleases us very much and demonstrates that together we can achieve excellent results.”

HTTPS://ERATOSTENES-UNAWE-REGION-ANDINA.BLOGSPOT.COM

Crates of Mallus' Globe circa 150 B.C

Crates of Mallus created the first known globe circa 150 B.C. We have now traced on a spherical surface the area in which we say the inhabited world is situated; and the man who would most closely approximate the truth by constructed figures must necessarily take for the earth a globe like that of Crates, and lay off on it the quadrilateral, and within the quadrilateral put down the map of the inhabited world.” ~ Strabo

Posidonius (c. 135-51 B.C.), using the position of the star Canopus from different latitudes, calculated the circumference of the Earth at 240,000 “stadia” = 39,000 km, ≈ actual of 40,074 km.

Ptolemy (2nd century A.D.), in his Geographia, used the globe as the center of the universe, and developed a system of latitude and longitude. In his astronomical work “Mathematical Treatise” Ptolemy proposed a system with multiple spheres for planets and stars, spheres within spheres (of crystal clear aether) to account for the apparent forward and retrograde motions of the planets against the fixed stars, (using epicycles and deferents).

Martianus Capella (5th century A.D.) expressed the idea that the planets Venus and Mercury did not go about the Earth but instead circled the Sun.

Aryabhata (499 A.D.) proposed a planetary model in which the Earth spins on its axis, with the periods of the planets taken as elliptical orbits around the Sun.

“That the motion we see is due to the Earth’s movement and not to that of the sky.” ~ Abu Sa’id al-Sijzi  (c. 1000 A.D.)

The planisphere of Ptolemy, or the mechanism (i.e. the movements) of the heavenly orbits following the hypothesis of Ptolemy laid out in a planar view.
The planisphere of Ptolemy, or the mechanism (i.e. the movements) of the heavenly orbits following the hypothesis of Ptolemy laid out in a planar view.

Abū Rayān Al-Bīrūnī (11th Century AD), a great Persian scholar, is widely acknowledged as the Father of Geodesy. He calculated Earth’s radius at approximately 6,339 kilometers, 99.5% of the correct figure, and claimed Earth rotates on its axis. He developed trigonometric formulae for geodetic and cartographic purposes. al-Biruni developed polar azimuthal equidistant projection maps which are useful for various geodetic measurement calculations.

Nilakantha Somayaji (1444–1544), in his Aryabhatiyabhasya, developed a computational system for a partially heliocentric planetary model, in which the planets orbit the Sun, which in turn orbits the Earth, similar to the Tychonic system.

“Ancient Indians called this planet ‘Bhu-gol’ or the Round Earth, proving advancement over the flat-Earth theory believed by almost every other Early civilization. In his famous Book on India, Alberuni, the medieval Islamic scholar quotes an Indian astronomer Brahmagupta to write-

“A man on Meru observes one identical star above the horizon in the zenith of Lanka, the country of demons, whilst a man in Lanka at the same time observes it above his head. Besides all astronomical observations are not correct unless we assume the globular shape of heaven and earth.

“Therefore we must declare that heaven is a globe, and the observation of these characteristics of the world would not be correct unless in reality it were a globe. Now it is evident that all other theories about the world are futile.”

https://decodehindumythology.blogspot.com/p/historical-facts.html

The Copernican Revolution

The Copernican Revolution was a time of a major paradigm shift from the old geocentric conceptions, which were experientially and spiritually based in most ways, to the new math-derived heliocentric concept, which is considered scientific or “rational.”

Proofs of the Tusi Couple from the works of Tusi (left) and Copernicus (right), showing the identity of the lettering of the diagrams. Wherever Tusi had alif Copernicus had A, and wherever Tusi had ba Copernicas had B, and so on.
Proofs of the Tusi Couple from the works of Tusi (left) and Copernicus (right), showing the identity of the lettering of the diagrams. Wherever Tusi had alif Copernicus had A, and wherever Tusi had ba Copernicas had B, and so on.

Polish astronomer Copernicus (1473-1543) mathematically reduced the geocentrically-observed complex motions of the planets to their lowest common denominators resulting in the simple orbits of the planets around the Sun.

The heliocentric model makes geometric sense, with its basic layout in space, providing simple solutions for the varying brightness of planets, their occasional retrograde motion, and other cosmic phenomena. There is a fundamental logic to it, backed by direct observations and calculations.

Copernicus acknowledged the nascence of his heliocentric theory with Aristarchus, and studied Euclid, Ptolemy & Islamic sources such as Nasir al-Din al-Tusi (13th Century). al-Tusi was an exceptional polymath, and constructed an observatory for determining proper astronomical tables. Copernicus copied diagrams directly from his work, using the “Tusi couple” as an integral device to his calculations based on circular orbits, for orbital changes later attributed to elliptical orbits by Kepler.

Galileo (1564-1642) – Italian astronomer & father of mechanistic science, discovered the larger moons of Jupiter, and promoted Copernicus’ Heliocentrism. Galileo ignored the Tychonian system which was preferred by astronomers of the time, not taking it seriously.

Tycho_Instruments
Tycho's equipment

Tycho Brahe (1546-1601) –Danish astronomer, promoted Geocentrism in the midst of the Copernican Revolution. In his Introduction to the New Astronomy (1588) he presented a Geocentric hybrid of the Ptolemaic and Copernican systems. Mercury and Venus orbit the Sun, the Sun orbits Earth, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn orbit the Sun at greater distances. Tycho made highly accurate astronomical observations on special equipment of his design.

Tycho hired Johannes Kepler, (1571-1630) – German astronomer & mathematician, to help interpret his data on the motions of the planets as observed. Kepler believed in the Copernican system. After Tycho’s death Kepler took the data and used it to create the simplified Heliocentric model using elliptical orbits, the reconciliation of observation vs calculation, the Tychonian vs the Copernican.

Kepler presented what is known as the “harmony of the spheres,” an idea he presented in his Kepler presented what is known as the “harmony of the spheres,” an idea he presented in his Harmonices Mundi (The Harmony of the World, 1619), the relationships between geometry, music, and the structure of the solar system.. the relationships between geometry, music, and the structure of the solar system.

Thus was presented an orderly heliocentric system, as the universe appears from Earth, based on the nested geometry of the Platonic solids.

The Tychonian system produces the same calculated results as Copernican system, in relation to our Earth-bound observations, the difference being that Tycho considered the Earth to be at rest at the center (with Moon and Sun orbiting the Earth, the rest of the planets orbiting the Sun), and Copernicus reduced Earth’s position to as merely one of the planets orbiting the Sun. The only way to tell these two systems apart would be stellar parallax, which is predicted by the Copernican system.

Parallax is the change in apparent position of an object from different perspectives. Stellar parallax is the expected motion of closer stars against more distant ones from different positions of the Earth’s orbit around the Sun, say six months apart.

One of Tycho’s chief arguments against the Copernican system was this lack of observable stellar parallax, indicating an unlikely vast empty void between the outer orbit of the planets and the realm of stars.

Astronomer Royal James Bradley’s experiments measuring the position of star gamma Draconis from London in 1727 indicated what is known as stellar aberration, due to what he considered Earth’s motion around the Sun.

Think of aberration as similar to rain coming at an angle when you run into it rather than standing still. However, Bradley did not measure the sought after parallax, the assumed change in position of stars due to Earth’s orbit around the Sun.

Bradley’s Aberration

Bradley’s experiments were later followed by Astronomer Royal George Biddell Airy’s negative results in the detection of parallax in his experiments of 1871, the famous “Airy’s Failure.”

Far from the expected results, Airy’s Failure could be taken that the stars are moving relative to a stationary Earth and not the other way around. By first filling a telescope with water to slow down the speed of light inside, then calculating the tilt necessary to get the starlight directly down the tube, Airy failed to prove the heliocentric theory, since the starlight was already coming in the correct angle with no tilt necessary. Geocentrists take this as proving the geocentric model correct.

Airy’s Failure

These negative results led on through decades of ether drift experiments, seeking to find an ether which would be moving with the Earth, pulling the starlight along with it as it rounded the Sun. This was because the Copernican view had settled in and the apparent geocentric results were anathema, so eventually Relativity was mathematically constructed to explain away any results not germane to heliocentrism.

Friederich Bessel measured the parallax of the star 61 Cygni in 1838, prior to Airy, which is curious that it is never mentioned in discussions of Airy’s Failure. As technology advanced more precise measurements of the stars have been able to be made.

The satellite Hipparcos was put up in 1989 specifically to measure parallax, and it has been relied upon heavily. However, comparing Hipparcos data with parallax measurements from Hubble and ground measurements the “Hipparcos anomaly” of an error of about 55 light years to the Pleiades was found. It appears this anomaly applies only to star clusters, which is curious!

So a new satellite, Gaia is now in L2 orbit:

Gaia Universe Map

“The main goal of the Gaia mission is to make the largest, most precise three-dimensional map of our Galaxy by surveying an unprecedented one per cent of the galaxy’s population of 100 billion stars.”

and the first major data release is the star map pictured.

Parallax research describes that the movement of the Earth around the Sun is indicated by the measurements, as tiny as they are. We are clearly reliant on the readings of equipment, we cannot directly experience the change of position so measured.

What is little discussed is “negative parallax.” The distribution of positive and negative parallax measurements in the Tycho catalogue is about equal with 25% negative parallax readings, 29% positive parallax readings, with the remainder showing effectively no parallax. Also the magnitude of the readings were about equal between negative and positive. If the negative readings are in error, then either the equipment is faulty and no readings are reliable, or the recorded stellar movements themselves are only proof of motion, not parallax.

Rotation

While the parallax experiments are meant to confirm Earth’s orbit around the Sun, what direct measurable evidence is there to verify Earth as a sphere rotating upon its axis?

Solar Eclipse Effects upon Pendulum
The period of a Foucault pendulum located at Jassy University, Romania, was carefully monitored during the solar eclipse of February 15, 1961. The pendulum’s length was 25.008 meters; its spherical bob weighed 5.5 kilograms.

Foucault’s Pendulum is said to demonstrate that a pendulum of sufficient proportions can track the rotation of Earth. This was first exhibited in the middle of the 19th Century and is a fixture at many museums around the world.

Maurice Allais, in his testing of Foucault’s pendulum effects, discovered that during a solar eclipse the pendulum is deviated for the period of the eclipse.

During the total eclipses of the sun on June 30, 1954, and October 22, 1959, quite analogous deviations of the plane of oscillation of the paraconical pendulum were observed…” ~ Maurice Allais, 1988 Nobel lecture

This effect has been reproduced in further experiments at Jassy University, Romania on Feb 15, 1961 and elsewhere:

This strikes at the validity of the theory of gravity, and in some minds brings into question whether or not Earth is rotating beneath the pendulum.

https://science.nasa.gov/science-news/science-at-nasa/1999/ast06aug99_1/

Celestial Navigation

Traditional Celestial Navigation on the oceans is based upon the Earth as a sphere. While using a sextant to sight the position of Sun or star is based on simple planar geometry, the actual calculation of position (via longitude and latitude) requires spherical trigonometry.

For short distances where the route is generally known simple Plane Sailing can be used, but this method is useless for long distance sea voyages where knowing one’s longitude and latitude is essential to arrive safely at one’s destination.

Commonly used equatorially mounted telescopes will only work on a spherical earth in order to track the stars so they don’t move out of the field of vision during observation. They are programmed to rotate at the same rate as the earth but in the opposite direction. The calculations will be the same whether the Earth or the Heavens are rotating.

Experiments with gyroscopes demonstrate both the rotation and the shape of the earth. Free rotating gyroscopes conserve angular momentum and always point in the same direction. The angle between the earth’s angular momentum vector and the gyroscope’s angular momentum vector is the latitude at which the gyroscope is located, thus Earth’s surface is tilted by {90 minus latitude} degrees from the axis of rotation, which can only occur on a sphere earth. If Earth was flat a gyroscope pointed up would always point up, but this is not the case with one of proper size and mass to relate to Earth’s rotation. There are many experiments confirming gyroscopic precession is latitude dependent.

Using the fact that the earth is rotating is also the basis for navigational gyrocompasses, which are a non-magnetic compasses based on a fast spinning disc and Earth’s rotation which can find True North and thus actual geographical direction on that basis. True North is the direction of Earth’s rotational axis, rather than magnetic north as per a magnetic compass. This eliminates potential interference from ferrous metal in ships’ hulls as well as localized magnetic deviations in Earth’s field. This renders them naturally superior for navigational purposes on ships.

Gyro-theodolites are gyroscopic reference surveying instruments. They are used for tunnels and other projects where compass directions are not easily discerned. They function at the equator and in both the northern and southern hemispheres, to within about 15 degrees of the poles, where they cannot be used at either the North Pole or South Pole, because the east-west component of Earth’s rotation is insufficient to obtain reliable results. 

The Institute of Geodesy in Potsdam, in the early 1900s, carried out gravity measurements on moving ships on oceans around the world.  The Hungarian nobleman and physicist Baron Roland von Eötvös (1848–1919), investigating their readings, noticed that they were lower when the boat moved eastwards, higher when it moved westward. He theorized this as a consequence of Earth’s rotation. The Eötvös Effect then is the change in perceived gravitational force caused by the change in centrifugal acceleration resulting from eastbound or westbound velocity. When moving eastbound, the object’s angular velocity is increased (in addition to the earth’s rotation), and thus the centrifugal force also increases, causing a perceived reduction in gravitational force. It appears related to the Coriolis Effect, the tendency of direction of air and water flows.

There are numerous other historic and scientific proofs for Earth’s spherical shape and movements, this is but a limning of the subject. But as we will see, much of this is still being questioned with varying degrees of knowledge and intelligence.

Tesla said:

“A single ray of light from a distant star falling upon the eye of a tyrant in bygone times may have altered the course of his life, may have changed the destiny of nations, may have transformed the surface of the globe, so intricate, so inconceivably complex are the processes in Nature.”

“That electrical energy can be economically transmitted without wires to any terrestrial distance … [it] is practicable to distribute power from a central plant in unlimited amounts, with a loss not exceeding a small fraction of one per cent, in the transmission, even to the greatest distance, twelve thousand miles — to the opposite end of the globe.”

“I have already demonstrated, by crucial tests, the practicability of signalling by my system from one to any other point of the globe, no matter how remote, and I shall soon convert the disbelievers. “

“Perhaps the most wonderful feature is that the energy travels chiefly along an orthodromic line, that is, the shortest distance between two points at the surface of the globe, and reaches the receiver without the slightest dispersion, so that an incomparably greater amount is collected than is possible by radiations.”

Tesla's World Wide Wireless power system

Shifting Earth?

There have been claims that Earth has shifted, being noticed by many signs. This is most interesting, but one also must consider that the thousands of amateur astronomers around the world with software driven automated tracking telescopes would notice this immediately. Nonetheless, something to keep a watch on.

How humans are making the Earth move:

http://www.smh.com.au/technology/sci-tech/global-warming-is-changing-the-earths-tilt-20160413-go5tgb.html

Inuit People on Sun Wrong, Stars Wrong, Earth Tilting on Axis:

Earth’s Magnetic Field Shifts, Forcing Airport Runway Change:

http://www.livescience.com/9231-earths-magnetic-field-shifts-forcing-airport-runway-change.html

http://news.blogs.cnn.com/2011/01/12/shift-of-earths-magnetic-north-pole-affects-florida-airport/

Greenland sun change rising early:

https://www.sott.net/article/221541-Strange-Phenomenon-Sun-rises-two-days-early-in%20-Greenland-sparks-fear%20a

Electric Universe Theory:

Superseding the orthodox gravity-based model of the universe is the Electric Universe model. The EU model basically turns the gravity model on its head and allows for experimental investigation and reproduction of cosmic phenomena. This development in the sciences provides a new platform from which to reconsider calculations and measurements of cosmic phenomena such as cosmological redshifts, which are taken as distance measurements, with problems arising such as widely discordant redshifts in connected galaxies, and quasar redshifts up to the equivalent of 200 billion light-years (which if designating time into the past, puts them some 180+ billion years before the alleged Big Bang).

See Halton Arp’s work for discordant redshifts indicating they are not a reliable measuring standard for cosmological distances:

Binary Orbit

It has been proposed that our Sun (Sol) is in a binary orbit with Sirius, this being the cause of precession and the Yugas, or World Ages. When Sol is closer to Sirius Earth receives higher energetic streams, and thus caused the legendary Golden Age. Now we are at the furthest point in the orbital cycle, causing the Kali Yuga, or Iron Age, this being noted by the Era 2012 cosmic alignment phase.

http://www.viewzone.com/sirius.html

Expanding earth

Expansion tectonics: this thesis posits that Earth is an expanding sphere, and research indicates that if one takes the ages of the sea floor and removes them chronologically then the continents fit together on a smaller Earth. While this model is rejected by adherents of the orthodox plate tectonic theory, there are still some excellent indications via the reduction of the sea floor to a smaller sphere.

Expanding Earth Globe sequence Sea Floor Spreading by Age

Hollow earth

There are numerous variations on the Hollow Earth Theory, from ancient legends of peoples of the interior from around the world, on through Edmund Halley’s concept, Jules Verne’s & Edgar Rice Burroughs’ use as a plot device in their fiction, on through numerous books detailing the diverse hypotheses.

Edmund Halley, of comet fame, proposed an Earth with concentric hollow shells, and an inner luminous atmosphere, said shells having different magnetic fields which he used to explain anomalous compass readings.

John Symmes, in the early 19th Century, proposed a Hollow Earth model consisting of a shell about 800 miles thick with other concentric inner spheres as per Halley, and proposed huge openings at the poles.

Marshal Gardner, in the early 20th Century, proposed a Hollow Earth with a Sun in the center, he patented a Hollow Earth globe, U.S. Patent #1096102

Some writers developed more the idea of an inner world, appearing much as our outer world, by metaphysical mechanics, with the inner Sun being plasmic or organic in nature, and functioning in such a manner as to cause the appearance of day and night.

Also, it was a general theme positing the openings at the poles. It is said that Admiral Byrd flew into one of these at the North Pole, but the data supporting that story (“Secret Diaries”) is suspect, and there is a dearth of useful satellite photos of the poles to follow this claim up. The Hollow Earth Theory is not reliant on the holes at the poles claim, which is but one perspective.

There is the theory that we are on the inside of the Hollow Earth, and that subject will be dealt with in the next section.

http://www.viewzone.com/hollowearth.html

Ancient Hopi Claim Their Ancestors Came From The Inner World
https://eraoflight.com/2021/05/25/ancient-hopi-claim-their-ancestors-came-from-the-inner-world/

Hollow Earth: According to the Macuxi Indians of the Amazon There’s An Entire World Inside Our Planet 
https://newspunch.com/amazon-indians-say-earth-has-a-subterranean-world-underground/

https://www.ancient-code.com/11-reasons-why-the-hollow-earth-actually-exists/

Canopy theory

Isaac Newton Vail proposed what is known as the Nebular or Canopy theory, that in the formation of Earth from a plasmic state the cooler density materials formed an inner sphere, the lighter to the outside. There was a layered collapse over time. The final remaining concentric sphere aloft was that of the oceans, which, when they fell, caused the great catastrophe known as the flood of Noah.

http://www.velikovsky.info/Isaac_Vail

 http://www.personal.psu.edu/jmc6/CFSF/Articles/brown_canopy.pdf

While the canopy theory doesn’t fit all the data, it does provide many interesting considerations as far as the origins of the geological column itself, along with some of the petroleum deposits. It makes sense when one looks at the geological structure of the earth both horizontally globally & vertical stratigraphically. The different ‘ages’ have their individual global spread; the geological column is never really complete in one area, often major gaps like at the bottom of the Grand Canyon:

“Rocks of the Ordovician and Silurian Periods are missing in Grand Canyon. Temple Butte Limestone of Devonian age occurs in scattered pockets. Redwall Limestone rests on these Devonian rocks or on Muav Limestone of much earlier Cambrian Age.”
Source: A QUESTIONABLE 200-MILLION-YEAR HIATUS – http://www.science-frontiers.com/sf051/sf051g11.htm

grand canyon unconformity cambrian
Stratigraphy of the Redwall-Muav contact, North Kaibab Trail, Grand Canyon. Notice the inter-tonguing. The mottled limestone and the layers of micaceous shale occur in both the Redwall and Muav limestones, even though they are supposedly separated by 200 million years.

Working backwards in time start with the canopy collapse, say 12,000 years ago, which flash froze the mammoths when it pulled in space from beyond the troposphere where the waters would have electrically collapsed where the aurora bands are… iced the poles (don’t forget the Maps of the Ancient Sea Kings, Antarctica with no ice)… left the loess soils as final geological overlay in two general bands around the earth below the permafrost areas, which has been pegged as extraterrestrial in origin (See http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Popular_Science_Monthly/Volume_24/December_1883/The_Loess-Deposits_of_Northern_China for a great description of the yellow soils of China which are vast allegedly-aerial loess deposits (along with Ukraine, Council Bluffs, Iowa, all on the same band; Southern hemisphere pampas of Argentina, South Island of NZ…)

Also, that event created the vast surficial geological disruptions acclaimed as ice-age evidence as the waters washed around the globe, mixing ground-up African lion with Arctic seals and others into masses of bones & depositing them in fracture caves along southern England, Spain, France, NZ has some, different species & mixes in diverse areas but some global distribution of similar.

Massive fossil Boneyards found all over the world: https://www.genesispark.com/exhibits/fossils/graveyards/

A comet has also been proposed as source for the evidence of a great past catastrophe, and there are certainly strong indications of this possibility.

http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/did-a-comet-hit-earth-12900-years-ago/

And various other scientific data on a global flood: http://www.earthage.org/EarthOldorYoung/scientific_evidence_for_a_worldwide_flood.htm

Also, that event created the vast surficial geological disruptions acclaimed as ice-age evidence as the waters washed around the globe, mixing ground-up African lion with Arctic seals and others into masses of bones & depositing them in fracture caves along southern England, Spain, France, NZ has some, different species & mixes in diverse areas but some global distribution of similar.

Sagittarius Dwarf Galaxy & Milky Way Galaxy

Is our Sun from the Sagittarius Dwarf Galaxy?

http://viewzone.com/milkyway.html

Disputed:  http://blogs.discovermagazine.com/badastronomy/2007/06/27/is-the-sun-from-another-galaxy/#.VqBw4vl9600

What is interesting about this is not whether or not our Sun came from interactions with the Sagittarius Dwarf Galaxy, but the actual model where dwarf galaxies interact with main galaxies. The exact same process is happening in our closest galactic neighbor, Andromeda.



End Stuff:

So much more could be said, this is a mere brief liming of proofs and indications, and updates will be ongoing. There are numerous books worthy of the diversity of content in this section. Have a think, open your mind. The only limits are the ones you accept.

*** *** *** *** ***

 “It may be boldly asked where can the man be found, possessing the extraordinary gifts of Newton, who could suffer himself to be deluded by such a hocus-pocus, if he had not in the first instance wilfully deceived himself;

Only those who know the strength of self-deception, and the extent to which it sometimes trenches on dishonesty, are in a condition to explain the conduct of Newton and of Newton’s school. To support his unnatural theory Newton heaps fiction upon fiction, seeking to dazzle where he cannot convince.

In whatever way or manner may have occurred this business, I must still say that I curse this modern history theory of Cosmology, and hope that perchance there may appear, in due time, some young scientists of genius, who will pick up courage enough to upset this universally disseminated delirium of lunatics.” ~ Johann Wolfgang Von Goethe